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Short chronology

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Tibet’s history begins in the 7th century. Tibet is under mongolian or mandchourian influences. After its official independance between 1911 and 1949, Tibet is occupied by China.

- From 620 to 640 : In the reign of Songtesen-Gampo, Tibet is unified. Tibetan Empire speads as far as Pamir, Turkistan and Nepal.

- In 821 : occured a Peace treaty with China. Demarcation of the frontier between China and Tibet. “Tibetans are happy in Tibet and Chinese happy in China”.

- In the 18th century : Mongolian influence. In order to avoid the conquest of Tibet, the dalaï lama promises political loyalty, benediction and religious instruction in exchange with sponsorship and protection.
Afterwards in Yuan dynasty (1279-1368) the dalaï lama becomes imperial tutor and Supreme Pontiff of the empire.

- From 1368 to 1644 : Ming dynasty. China has conquered again its independance. Tibet has few relations with China.

- From 1644 to 1911 : Qing dynasty. The Manchurians reign over China. Relation of “priest-chief” (chö yün in tibetan) between the two states.
Between 1720 and 1792, manchurian emperors influence the Tibet by sending troops against Mongolian and Gorkhas (Nepalese) invasions and interfering in the government. Anyway Tibet is not annexed.

- British influence through the 19th century. Between 1904 and 1908 Tibet is part of british colonies.

- In 1911 : Proclamation of the first chinese democracy. The chinese army which occupied Lhassa surrenders.

- In 1913 : Tibet proclaims its independance.

- 1949 : Chinese army invades Tibet.

- In may, “Treaty with 17 points for the pacificated liberation of Tibet” signed under constrait. It expects recognition by the Tibet of the sovereign China in exchange with the respect of a certain autonomy.
Tibetan resistance to Chinese occupying forces is very strong. Repression and uprising always repeat.

- In March 1959 : Exile of the dalaï lama who is welcome in India and formation of the exiled government.

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Figaro News from April the 8th in 1959

- In 1963 : The Dalaï Lama promulgates a constitution for a democratic Tibet.

- In 1965 : Pekin creates “the Independent Region of Tibet”.

- Between 1966 and 1980 : During the cultural revolution, it was forbidden to practise its religion.

- From 1978 onwards : There were negociations between the Dalaï Lama and chinese government but theym fell through.

- 1989 : Nobel Prize for Peace is awarded to the Dalaï Lama.

- In 1995 : For the 1st time in the history of tibetan buddhism, Pekin directly intervenes in the choice of Panchen Lama naming a six years-old-boy and setting under house arrest the child recognized by the Dalaï Lama whose news are still unknown.

- January 2006 : The spanish court of Justice sues China for genocide against the tibetan citizen.

- July 2006 : Official opening of the railway from Pekin to Lhassa. It’s the opening up of Tibet which favours Tibetan integration to China and chinasation.

Evaluation of chinese invasion and occupation

- The number of Tibetan victims is 1 200 000 dead people, mainly deported in work camps, driven to suicide or famine victims.
- Nearly all the 6 000 temples and tibetan monasteries have been destroyed and looted.

- The rights of practising tibetan religion is flouted. The Dalaï Lama photos are forbidden causing emprisonment. Demonstrations for independence of Tibet are violently repressed.

- Birth control is applied for the Tibetans but not for the other ethnic minorities.

International legality

Tibet has never lost its status. It’s an independent country obedient to illegal occupation.
For China, the Tibet is part of its territory, as it was obedient in the 13th and 17th century.

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